Toenail fungus is a common skin condition that is diagnosed in nearly one in five people. Mycosis of the feet (onychomycosis) is caused by damage to the nails or feet by a fungus - red trichophyton. Often, mold and candida join trichophyton colonies. The causes of the onset of the disease can be abrasions, wounds, cuts and calluses on the legs, uneven foot hygiene care, taking antibiotics and other drugs, excessive sweating of the feet, weak immunity and other factors.
Externally, nail fungus manifests itself as discoloration and thickening of the nails, which can lead to their destruction or crumbling. Fungi are located between the base and the nail plate, which gives the nail plate a white, gray, yellow, brown, sometimes green or black tint.
The tactics and treatment regimen for nail fungus are determined by the doctor individually, taking into account the localization, distribution and severity of fungal lesions, the duration of the disease and the presence of concomitant diseases.
As a result of the growth and reproduction of pathogenic fungi, toxic substances accumulate in the human body. They are transported with the bloodstream, which causes a deterioration of metabolic processes and an increase in the body's susceptibility to the influence of external factors. A prolonged course of onychomycosis can cause the development of allergic reactions, exacerbation of chronic pathologies and weaken the immune system.
To avoid serious complications, when the first symptoms of toenail fungus are found, consult a doctor who will prescribe an appropriate treatment.
Toenail fungus treatment methods
To prescribe an effective treatment regimen, it is important to determine the cause of mycosis and the type of fungus. To do this, the doctor collects clinical data during the consultation, prescribes a cultural and microscopic examination of the scraped from the affected nail. In some cases, a nail particle analysis and PCR diagnostics are prescribed.
On average, foot mycosis therapy lasts 3-6 months. Taking into account the nature and spread of fungal lesions, the severity of clinical manifestations and the type of pathogen, therapy for foot fungus may include hardware treatment of the feet, taking systemic medications, the use of medications. premises and the observation of a number of preventive measures.
Toenail fungus laser treatment
Previously, the treatment of onychomycosis was carried out by radical methods: the affected nail was removed by an operative method, after which a long rehabilitation period began. Thanks to the development of modern technologies, today hardware processing of nails with a laser is used to treat fungal lesions. Using laser beams, the doctor can only remove the affected areas of the nail without damaging healthy tissue. Compared to surgical removal, laser foot fungus therapy is characterized by minimal postoperative complications and a short recovery period.
Removal of the nail plate by the hardware method is prescribed when more than 40% of the surface is affected. The number of laser therapy sessions is determined by the doctor individually.
After exposure to the laser, the nail plate, as it grows, must be treated with special local preparations. Immunomodulators and antibacterial agents may also be prescribed.
Preparations and remedies for toenail fungus treatment
Therapy of the initial stages of mycosis, when less than 40% of the nail plate is affected, is carried out using external medicines (solutions, varnishes, ointments, gels, creams). To achieve the desired results, it is important to adhere to the prescribed regimen and dosage of the drug.
The choice of an external agent for the treatment of mycosis of the legs is carried out taking into account the localization of fungal lesions and the type of skin. Dry skin is treated with high-fat preparations. Ointments for the soles of the feet and suspensions for the spaces between the toes are prescribed. In addition, mycosis of the feet is treated with special paints and creams. In order for the remedies to better penetrate the nail, the affected nail plate is removed (as indicated).
After 2 weeks of treatment, the external drug must be changed to another, since during this time the fungal infection has become resistant to the drug used. For the growth of the nail, the doctor prescribes special medications that should be used to treat the affected area for about a year. If the interdigital spaces or feet are damaged by mycosis, the ointments are used for a month.
To achieve successful results, local therapy is combined with systemic therapy. In this case, the patient is prescribed antifungal and immunostimulating drugs. The effectiveness of taking systemic drugs will depend on adherence to the rules of the prescribed treatment regimen. The choice of the drug and its dosage are determined by the doctor individually.
Therapy with local drugs only is prescribed in the presence of restrictions on the intake of systemic drugs and in the early stages of fungal lesions.
Prevention and recommendations after complex toenail fungus treatment
If the scheme of therapeutic action was selected correctly, mycosis does not return. Since the subsequent development of the disease is due to reinfection, the most effective treatment for toenail fungus is its prevention.
To avoid reinfection with the fungus and achieve the maximum results of therapy, the following recommendations should be adhered to:
- Treat any places where fungi might remain with antibacterial drugs;
- Disinfect the bottom and walls of the tank with special means;
- Change your house slippers and treat sneakers, shoes, boots and other footwear with ultraviolet rays or a special agent;
- Thoroughly wash and iron bed linen, towels, tights and socks;
- Disinfect manicure supplies;
- Use personal hygiene items in public places (fitness room, swimming pool);
- Regularly monitor the condition of the feet.
Self-medication of onychomycosis can provoke the occurrence of adverse complications, therefore, if you find the first signs of nail fungus, contact a competent specialist.